Many English-speaking Commonwealth of Nations countries that have structured their training in a neoliberal market, such as New Zealand, Scotland, Australia, South Africa, England and Ireland, have adopted national certification frameworks. They can also be taken into account in Kintzer`s typology, with people created in New Zealand and South Africa being prescriptive and more favourable to Scotland, Ireland and Australia (Young, 2005: 12) and almost voluntarily for certain sectors. Some argue that a certification framework is part of the neoliberal agenda, because it brings education together and thus contributes “to the creation of education markets by providing a common qualifying currency. This common currency, like the money of an economy, is seen as promoting increased competition between diploma providers, since all institutions recognize and reward learning in the same way” (Strathdee, 2003: 157). However, even in countries that have strongly marketed their higher education, such as New Zealand, Australia and, to a lesser extent, England, national certification frameworks are encouraged to minimize barriers to vertical and horizontal transfer and to “maximize access, flexibility and portability between different areas of education and work and different places of learning” (Young , 2003: 224). However, it is relatively unclear that national certification frameworks are meeting these goals (Young, 2005: 1). We think of the case where the government rewards companies by the s rate for each unit reducing pollution in relation to a certain basic amount e0. As a result, the company that issues emissions receives payment of the grant (e0 e). Under these conditions, the company loses the value of any positive increase in pollution; Therefore, emission costs are at the limit of those of a pollution tax of s.Kintzer (1973) proposes a useful typology of articulation agreements and transfer policies: formal or state regulatory agreements requiring the adoption of certain measures, public policies that promote articulation and transfer, and voluntary agreements between institutions or systems. The United States has put in place a number of measures to promote the articulation and deboning of two- to four-year-old institutions, most of which are voluntary or non-compulsory, although they are often translated into legislation. The State Education Commission (2001) found that of the 50 United States, 30 had transfer support laws, 40 had national cooperation agreements, 33 states regularly collected transfer data and reported that 18 states had incentives and rewards to send students or send or host institutions, and 26 maintained a national transfer guide.
While there is evidence that state policy can influence the effectiveness of student transfer (Wellman, 2002: 45), others (Anderson et al., 2006) have questioned the effectiveness of state articulation agreements. Other jurisdictions take the range of articulation promotion measures described in Kintzer`s typology, with the extent of the state`s prescription, encouragement or calm in the articulation, which is generally related to the extent of their participation in other aspects of higher education. Voluntary environmental delivery is a tempting term. For many reasons, some companies seem to be doing on their own what they would have done in the past only under the threat of the law.